Optimizing Motivation Theory for Medical Training: Teaching on the Wards

By Eric Gantwerker MD, MMSc (MedEd), FACS
November 15, 2018

As we take theory to practice we discuss what motivates our trainees to learn and how can we use motivational learning theory to promote deep and meaningful learning among our trainees.

Self-determination theory (SDT) purports that humans are by nature curious and have the desire to learn.1,2 SDT underlies the concept of motivation; described as a continuum from amotivation (lack of motivation) to extrinsic motivation (external rewards) to intrinsic motivation (inherent interest).3 A closely related concept is self-regulated learning (SRL), described by Zimmerman et al., that delineates the complex interplay between motivations, learning, assessment, and metacognition that impacts effective learning processes.4,5

Intrinsic motivation and SRL have been associated with deeper forms of learning, improved performance, increased interest, commitment, and satisfaction.2,3 As we take theory to practice we discuss what motivates our trainees to learn and how can we use motivational learning theory to promote deep and meaningful learning among our trainees. Strategies to foster intrinsic motivation and SRL have been tied to three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness.1,2 In addition, some common practices are discussed regarding their impact on motivation and SRL. Continue reading “Optimizing Motivation Theory for Medical Training: Teaching on the Wards”

“Should international medical graduates do research?”

Medical researcher with vials of blood.

Kenneth B. Christopher, MD, SM,
November 29, 2017

Dr. Kenneth Christopher is the associate director of global education at Harvard Medical School and the course director for Introduction to Postgraduate American Medicine, an online course that prepares international medical graduates for careers in the American health system.

Dr. Christopher has written for and about international medical graduates for many years, and has agreed to share some of his blog posts with our Lean Forward audience.

The topic of today’s reblog is whether or not research has any value for international medical graduates seeking careers in the American health care system.

Internal Medicine Residency for IMGs

I get asked the “should I do research” and “where can I do research” question often. From my look at the NRMP data about half of those who match have research which means half do not.

If you are going to do two years of research and delay your application and increase the distance from your year of graduation you better produce something like this. High quality research is difficult and takes a lot of time to produce. You need to join a productive group and bring something to the table. Few IMG applicants who do any research time without previous training (MPH, MSc, PhD) have much to show for it. Performing research to get into residency is not worth the effort. Pursuing research because your passion to become an academic is a laudable act in my opinion.

If you think about it, most successful IMG applicants will match…

View original post 262 more words

Clinical Reasoning: Storing Stories to Narrow the Diagnosis

By Martina McGrath, MD
October 24, 2017

Accurate clinical reasoning is central to the art of medicine, and involves complex cognitive processes that most clinicians perform unconsciously. However, teaching these skills is an essential component of developing expert clinicians. In an era of rising healthcare costs, increased access to diagnostic testing and unlimited access to knowledge, the ability to sift through large amounts of data, synthesize a clinical presentation in a meaningful way and develop a logical differential diagnosis with a focused, rational plan of evaluation, is perhaps more important than ever.1

Skilled clinical reasoning follows a series of steps, beginning (as we were all taught in medical school) with history-taking and physical examination. As the clinician talks to the patient, she begins to develop an impression of the patient’s story, known as a mental abstraction.2 This mental abstraction guides further questioning and clinical examination. After acquiring the relevant data, the clinician must develop a concise one-line summary of the findings, a ‘problem representation,’ incorporating the most important features of the case, relevant negatives, and a differential diagnosis. The problem representation is an essential step in synthesizing the data to formulate a plan of diagnosis and treatment.

A specific patient presentation can trigger recall of a memory of a previous clinical encounter, along with its associated knowledge, which may include pathophysiology, treatment, complications, etc.

Helping trainees (particularly those early in their careers) to develop accurate problem representation allows them to accurately access their stored knowledge about a particular medical problem. If the presentation is not framed appropriately, the correct information cannot be accessed, leading to increased likelihood of unfocused reasoning and diagnostic errors. Teachers should encourage learners to develop a one-line summary and then explore that summary, using open questions such as “Why do you think that?” or “What features support/do not support that conclusion?” This approach informs the teaching physician of the trainees’ thinking process, and also encourages greater engagement by the trainee in clinical reasoning. It can be very instructive if the teacher then gives their own summary and reasons aloud, illustrating how the case links to their prior experience, and demonstrating effective clinical reasoning strategies.

Experienced clinicians mentally develop personal ‘illness scripts’, a repertoire of patient stories that connect prior clinical experiences with medical knowledge, and store them as accessible memories that guide diagnostic reasoning.2,3 A specific patient presentation can trigger recall of a memory of a previous clinical encounter, along with its associated knowledge, which may include pathophysiology, treatment, complications, etc. Possession of a broad range of illness scripts allows expert clinicians to rapidly formulate a diagnosis, but also recognize atypical presentations and break down complex cases into their component parts.

Encouraging the development of a trainee’s personal repertoire of illness scripts is central to clinical training. Repeated patient interactions, particularly early in a hospitalization before all testing is complete, are critical to developing this skill.4  Each experience feeds into the knowledge base behind illness scripts. Guided discussion with an experienced clinician helps to consolidate these mental connections, and provides very valuable insights. Also when rounding on admitted patients, critical reflection helps to consolidate illness scripts, and avoids cognitive errors due to failure to challenge that initial diagnostic label as more information becomes available later.

Those of us who have been fortunate enough to train with outstanding clinicians will recognize these approaches. Solving the puzzle and getting to the right treatment plan is one of the more rewarding aspects of being a medical professional, and should be a cherished skill to hand on to our future colleagues.


Learn to develop essential skills in clinical research.


References:

  1. Cooke S, Lemay JF. Transforming Medical Assessment: Integrating Uncertainty Into the Evaluation of Clinical Reasoning in Medical Education. Acad Med. 2017 Jun;92(6):746-751. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001559.
  2. Bowen JL. Educational strategies to promote clinical diagnostic reasoning. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 23;355(21):2217-25.
  3. Elstein AS, Schwartz A. Clinical problem solving and diagnostic decision making: selective review of the cognitive literature. BMJ 2002;324:729-32.
  4. Simpkin AL, Vyas JM, Armstrong KA. Diagnostic Reasoning: An Endangered Competency in Internal Medicine Training. Ann Intern Med 2017;167:507-8.

Head shot of Dr. Martina McGrathDr. Martina McGrath is an Instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School, and a member of the Renal Division, Department of Medicine, at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, both in Boston. Dr. McGrath is the Medical Editor for the Trends in Medicine blog.

 

*OPINIONS EXPRESSED BY OUR GUEST AUTHORS ARE VALUABLE TO US AT LEAN FORWARD, BUT DO NOT REPRESENT OFFICIAL POSITIONS OR STATEMENTS FROM HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL.

 

HMS Responds to the Opioid Crisis with Education

Harvard Medical School’s dean, George Daley, recently hosted a panel presentation to highlight “the transformative role that education can and should play in solving the opioid crisis.” HMS speakers at the event presented a three-pronged approach taken by the medical school to address the current epidemic of opioid use and abuse which includes educating medical students, health care professionals, and the general public. Other notable invitees spoke about health care policy in our government.

The following is a summary of the event by Dean David Roberts, one of the presenting speakers:

By David Roberts, MD
HMS Dean for External Education
October 13, 2017

On October 3rd, my colleagues Todd Griswold, Bertha Madras, and I joined Massachusetts governor Charlie Baker and HMS dean George Daley to make a presentation on Harvard Medical School’s response to the opioid crisis. The live-streamed event held at the HMS Martin Conference Center was attended by a large in-person audience with an additional remote audience of more than 6,000 viewers.

For my part, I presented on the great work Harvard Medical School teams are doing creating free online learning resources for clinicians, recovery coaches, first responders, and family members who are wrestling with the opioid crisis every day. Continue reading “HMS Responds to the Opioid Crisis with Education”

Maximizing Your Academic Medicine Social Media Impact

By Kristina Dzara, Ph.D., M.M.Sc.
August 17, 2017

[The third post in a three-part series exploring the use of social media by medical professionals seeking greater academic impact.]

Remember, once you make the decision to embrace social media, move forward not backwards!

Although Twitter is the social media of choice for academic medicine,1,2 more and more individuals and organizations working in healthcare have Facebook, LinkedIn, and Instagram accounts. Although lesser used, newer social media platforms specifically related to academic medicine – for example, Doximity and Medshr – are emerging.3,4

In my previous posts, I wrote about embracing social media in academic medicine, and social media’s educational purpose. Here, I offer some ways that those of us working in academic medicine can maximize our social media impact.

The three sites I see used most often in academic medicine are Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn. Twitter allows users to interact using ‘tweets’—brief posts restricted to 140 characters—as a way to share information with others. Users register a handle—for example, mine is @KristinaDzara—which allows others to follow them. Generally speaking, the more followers you have, the more impact your tweets can have on Twitter, in the form of likes, retweets, and overall impressions. Unless you have a private account, any other Twitter user can follow and interact with you.

Facebook allows users to ‘friend’ or ‘follow’ other individuals or organizations. Facebook users are able to control who follows them by accepting or declining friend requests. Although Facebook is more often thought of as a way to connect with family and friends, it can also be effective for professional networking. Many organizations have Facebook accounts and share information about upcoming conferences, events, and opportunities. More recently, Facebook Live has been utilized as a way to broadcast from live academic roundtables and events.

Consider LinkedIn your digital rolodex for professional networking. In many ways an online curriculum vitae, on LinkedIn you can clearly indicate your educational and employment history, as well as publications, presentations, and certifications. Like Facebook, you can request to connect with others and have the power to accept or decline connections. Some prefer to connect only with those they know in real life, while others utilize it as a way to connect with those outside their close professional network. LinkedIn also allows users to post updates—for example, new publications or blog posts—which may be of interest to connections. Another feature is groups, which allows professionals in the same field to make contacts, post and view jobs, and share information.

Regardless of platform, there are a few general principles which can help you maximize your social media impact:

1. Tell a clear and consistent story about who you are and what you do.

Make sure your social media profiles use the same high-quality professional headshot across all platforms. Keep your social media bios up to date, especially if you have had any recent transitions, promotions, or new duties. It is important that if someone views more than one of your social media profiles, the information is similar across platforms.

2. Follow and be followed.

Growing your professional social media networks requires cultivation! Start by connecting with colleagues you already know – they are likely to accept your request and follow you back. Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn all recommend people to connect with, which is a great place to start. Scroll your social media newsfeeds and look for posts of interest, see who posted them, and consider following them. However, never feel obligated to follow or engage with another user for any reason. For the most part, I reserve LinkedIn as a way to connect with those I have met or worked with. However, I am more flexible with those I follow on Twitter, provided they have some connection to academic medicine, healthcare, or my discipline, medical education.

3. Share what you are doing.
There is a small part of social media that feels like a bit of self-promotion. Although this may feel boastful, offering professional updates may help you connect with others who have shared interests. You may find that this transparency sparks new conversations about scholarly collaboration or mentorship! When sharing articles or resources, include your opinion or a one liner about what you learned (use a URL shortener like goo.gl or bit.ly to keep the link brief).

4. Use social media to your benefit.
One of my favorite purposes for social media is to follow broad trends in academic medicine. Twitter is exceptionally useful here, as hashtags are a way to quickly identify and find content of interest. Identify a few hashtags based on your interests, subspecialty, or conferences you attend. Some of my favorites include Medical Education (#MedEd), Free and Open Access to Medical Education (#FOAMed), and Healthcare Leadership (#HCLDR). #AcMed (Academic Medicine) also seems to be gaining some traction. Identify a few journals and professional organizations that align with your interests and check their posts. Within minutes you’ll be updated about new articles, conferences, and topics of interest.

5. Be a social media leader!
Utilize social media when at national, regional, and local academic events. This is a quick and easy way to be recognized by both colleagues and experts. When posting, tag an organization, event, or individual by including them in your post to increase your visibility. Provided it is acceptable to the conference and/or speaker, contribute to the conversation by tweeting or retweeting take-home points from the session or links to articles discussed. This can be a powerful networking tool, and you will be recognized by others for it. Don’t forget to have a little fun by posting a photo with colleagues you know or new followers you meet in person. By actively posting to social media during academic events, you will be viewed as someone who is not only approachable, but also savvy to social media.

Remember, once you make the decision to embrace social media, move forward not backwards! Don’t be afraid to engage with others and share the good things you, your colleagues, and your organization are doing. Your social media engagement may lead to opportunities for scholarly collaboration and professional growth – it certainly has for me! Social media has a strong foothold in our community of practice, a trend which shows no sign of slowing anytime soon.


For the latest information on trends in medicine and continuing medical education, follow HMS Global Academy on Twitter and LinkedIn.

For an example of how one doctor uses Twitter to impact his practice, HMS Global Academy recommends the Ted Talk: Twitter Has Made Me a Better Doctor.


References:

  1. Gallo T. Twitter is Trending in Academic Medicine. 2017. https://goo.gl/grJz1w.
  2. Choo EK, Ranney ML, Chan TM, et al. Twitter as a Tool for Communication and Knowledge Exchange in Academic Medicine: A Guide for Skeptics and Novices. Med Teach. 2015; 37(5):411-416.
  3. Doximity. 2017. https://www.doximity.com/.
  4. MedShr. 2017. https://en.medshr.net/.

Kristina Dzara_100x125Kristina Dzara, Ph.D., M.M.Sc. (@KristinaDzara) is a medical educator and researcher with 5+ years of experience in academic medicine. She is a recent graduate of the Harvard Medical School Master’s in Medical Education program and serves as Harvard Macy Institute’s Social Media Strategist. Her areas of professional interest include evaluation and assessment, faculty development, and social media in medical education.

*OPINIONS EXPRESSED BY OUR GUEST AUTHORS ARE VALUABLE TO US AT LEAN FORWARD, BUT DO NOT REPRESENT OFFICIAL POSITIONS OR STATEMENTS FROM HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL.

An Education Purpose for Social Media in Medicine

[The second in a three-part series exploring the use of social media by medical professionals seeking greater academic impact.]

By Kristina Dzara, Ph.D., M.M.Sc.
August 3, 2017

“Importantly, the choice to use social media must be made purposefully.”

As the number of millennials in medical school, residency and fellowship programs, and in faculty and leadership grows, the use of social media will become more common as a way to reach and engage with learners. When effectively designed, social media does have an educational purpose, offering an opportunity to engage our millennial learners and tap into their technological savvy. As educators, we would be remiss not to utilize various social media platforms to further engage with our learners and provide another context for them to transfer and deepen their learning.

Importantly, the choice to use social media must be made purposefully. When optimized, social media aligns with principles of both cognitive science and adult learning theory [Figure 1]. Adult learners desire relevant, timely, and useful information and learn better when they can positively transfer knowledge, skills, and understanding from one context to another.1,2 An example could include residents participating in a series of online journal clubs and then developing and cultivating a residency-program Twitter account to communicate with peers. Additionally, reflection upon educational experiences can deepen learning. Reflection could be encouraged by asking learners to anonymously post about a recent educational experience on a backchannel chat platform, such as Today’s Meet,3 and then comment on another learner’s post. Notably, both of these educational activities would allow the teacher to assess the learner at the ‘does’ level, which is increasingly more important in the age of competency-based medical education.

Figure 1.

Infographic depiciting learning theory and cognitive science merging with social media.

However, it is essential that educators also consider the potential unintended consequences of social media when used to supplement or replace a more traditional curriculum.4,5 Learners must maintain their professionalism online and follow organizational guidelines and HIPAA standards. There is also concern that social media and online resources are of inconsistent quality. Scholars are now investigating how we might best determine the quality of Free Open Access Medical Education (#FOAMed) resources including blogs, websites, and podcasts.6,7

In my last post, I considered why we should embrace social media in academic medicine. In addition to the many professional benefits, social media has numerous educational implications. Below, I offer three ways social media can be applied to medical education:

  1. Tweet chats and online journal clubs:
    Twitter has become popular in academic medicine, and in some cases, may offer advantages compared to more traditional educational activities.8,9 Both tweet chats and online journal clubs can be delivered synchronously (occurring at the same time as a scheduled learning activity) or asynchronously (not occurring at the same time) and offer learners the opportunity to engage in scholarly debate and reflection online. The flipped classroom—where content is introduced prior to the class session and class time is for knowledge assimilation—is an example of how tweet chats and journal clubs might be utilized as part of a broader curriculum.10 Having taken place before an in-person class session, either would situate the learner in the day’s problem space.10
  2. Podcasts:
    Podcasts allow for streamlined content related to topics interesting to learners in various fields, including medical education. One of my personal favorites is the scholarly KeyLIME Podcast (#KeyLIMEPodcast) which offers “…the main points of a medical education article in just 20 minutes.”11 This is a prime example of leveraging technology and social media to support either self-directed or instructor-led learning. New information delivered to learners in this format has the potential to expand existing knowledge bases and encourage critical thinking.
  3. Blogs:
    Writing for an academic or organizational blog can be used to explore topics of interest or reflect on educational and clinical experiences.12 Writing a blog post may be a helpful exercise for trainees with limited writing and research experience. Some journals—such as Health Affairs and BMJ—have blogs and encourage guest authorship. Moreover, writing for a blog offers learners an opportunity to engage in online educational scholarship, gain academic confidence, and grow their CV’s.

[Read part one of this series: Embracing Social Media in Academic Medicine]


Harvard Medical School Global Academy has blogging opportunities
available for credentialed health professionals.

Learn more about submitting a blog post to Lean Forward  or Trends in Medicine.


Kristina Dzara_100x125Kristina Dzara, Ph.D., M.M.Sc. (@KristinaDzara) is a medical educator and researcher with 5+ years of experience in academic medicine. She is a recent graduate of the Harvard Medical School Master’s in Medical Education program and serves as Harvard Macy Institute’s Social Media Strategist. Her areas of professional interest include evaluation and assessment, faculty development, and social media in medical education.

References:

  1. Weidman J, Baker K. The Cognitive Science of Learning: Concepts and Strategies for the Educator and Learner. Anesth Analg. 2015; 121(6):1586-1599.
  2. Knowles MS, Holton III EF, Swanson RA. The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. 8 ed: Routledge; 2015.
  3. TodaysMeet LLC. What is Today’s Meet? 2017. https://todaysmeet.com/about/backchannel.
  4. Pereira I, Cunningham AM, Moreau K, Sherbino J, Jalali A. Thou shalt not tweet unprofessionally: an appreciative inquiry into the professional use of social media. Postgrad Med J. 2015; 91(1080):561-564.
  5. Hors-Fraile S, Atique S, Mayer MA, Denecke K, Merolli M, Househ M. The Unintended Consequences of Social Media in Healthcare: New Problems and New Solutions. JMIA Yearb Med Inform. 2016; (1):47-52.
  6. Thoma B, Chan TM, Paterson QS, Milne WK, Sanders JL, Lin M. Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Blogs and Podcasts: Establishing an International Consensus on Quality. Ann Emerg Med. 2015; 66(4):396-402 e394.
  7. Lin M, Joshi N, Grock A, et al. Approved Instructional Resources Series: A National Initiative to Identify Quality Emergency Medicine Blog and Podcast Content for Resident Education. J Grad Med Educ. 2016; 8(2):219-225.
  8. Mehta N, Flickinger T. The times they are a-changin’: academia, social media and the JGIM Twitter Journal Club. J Gen Intern Med. 2014; 29(10):1317-1318.
  9. Forgie SE, Duff JP, Ross S. Twelve tips for using Twitter as a learning tool in medical education. Med Teach. 2013; 35(1):8-14.
  10. Hillman T, Sherbino J. Social media in medical education: a new pedagogical paradigm? Postgrad Med J. 2015; 91(1080):544-545.
  11. Frank JR, Snell L, Sherbino J. KeyLIME – Key Literature in Medical Education. 2017. http://www.royalcollege.ca/rcsite/canmeds/keylime-podcasts-e.
  12. Khadpe J, Joshi N. How to Utilize Blogs for Residency Education. J Grad Med Educ. 2016; 8(4):605-606.

*OPINIONS EXPRESSED BY OUR GUEST AUTHORS ARE VALUABLE TO US AT LEAN FORWARD, BUT DO NOT REPRESENT OFFICIAL POSITIONS OR STATEMENTS FROM HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Embracing Social Media in Academic Medicine

[The first in a three-part series exploring the use of social media by medical professionals seeking greater academic impact.]

By Kristina Dzara, Ph.D., M.M.Sc.
July 12, 2017

The choice to engage with—or even embrace—social media is yours. Those who don’t may find that in the near future that it will be a challenge to share information, grow professional networks, and stay on top of relevant literature.

Sample Altmetrics Score Depiction
Sample Altmetrics score

Academic medicine is harnessing the power of social media for networking, professional development, education, and dissemination of information.1 An ever-growing cadre of individuals and organizations in healthcare have Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram accounts, e-newsletters, podcasts and blogs.1-3 In fact, Twitter is the social media of choice for academic medicine.3,4 Although there is debate about professionalism and social media—as well as a concern that we spend too much time using social media without concrete evidence of educational and academic worth—social media has a strong foothold in our community of practice.3,5-7

The journal article remains the gold standard for dissemination of scholarly work. Yet, the publication process continues to be disrupted by new models of publication—prime examples are open access e-journals such as MedEdPortal and MedEdWorld. These advances are symbiotic with social media, especially Twitter. A number of journals have started including author Twitter handles in their publications and encourage tweets about new articles. Several offer a link providing free access to a limited number of readers, to be used for social media dissemination.

Blogs are multipurpose and can allow for the rapid spread of information.2 Blogs are colloquially written, and authors can write without the time and resources required to construct a full-length research article. Blogging can also help authors explore areas of early professional interest to increase familiarity with the topic. Certainly, the content and quality of blogs vary, but studies are being conducted to offer objective, scientific evidence of quality.8 Moreover, some journals, such as Health Affairs and the British Medical Journal, have blogs and encourage participation.

Although traditional journal-based citation metrics such as the impact factor and h-index  remain the standard, researchers are embracing new alternative metrics including usage (views, downloads, clicks), mentions (blog, media coverage), citations (Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed), and number of tweets and Facebook likes for their own articles to supplement journal impact factors.4,9,10 These and other alternatives, such as the Altmetric Attention Score, are becoming more commonly used in academic medicine.4,9,10 Altmetrics are social-media based, have both a numeric score and a visual depiction of reach, and can objectively measure the impact of articles, webinars, educational videos, and blogs in real time.4,9,10 Although there is some concern that Altmetric scores can be gamed or manipulated, overall they can be utilized as an additional measure which can be triangulated with traditional metrics to gain a more comprehensive portrait of impact.4,5,9,10

The choice to engage with—or even embrace—social media is yours. Those who don’t may find that in the near future that it will be a challenge to share information, grow professional networks, and stay on top of relevant literature. We know that our millennial learners and colleagues have embraced social media, and that the technology which allows us to engage worldwide is expanding by the day. If information truly is power, social media offers us more than we could have ever previously imagined.


Already using Twitter? Be sure to follow HMS Global Academy @AcademyHMS.


References:

  1. Chisolm MS. Social Media in Medicine: The Volume that Twitter Built. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2015; 27(2):83-84.
  2. Khadpe J, Joshi N. How to Utilize Blogs for Residency Education. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2016; 8(4):605-606.
  3. Gallo T. Twitter is Trending in Academic Medicine. 2017. https://goo.gl/grJz1w.
  4. Chisholm MS. Altmetrics for Medical Educators. Acad Psychiatry. 2016.
  5. Wise J. Promoting Research on Social Media Has Little Impact. BMJ. 2014; 349:g7016.
  6. Choo EK, Ranney ML, Chan TM, et al. Twitter as a Tool for Communication and Knowledge Exchange in Academic Medicine: A Guide for Skeptics and Novices. Med Teach. 2015; 37(5):411-416.
  7. Kesselheim JC, Batra M, Belmonte F, Boland KA, McGregor RS. New Professionalism Challenge in Medical Training: An Exploration of Social Networking. J Grad Med Educ. 2014; 6(1):100-105.
  8. Chan T, Trueger NS, Roland D, Thoma B. Evidence-based Medicine in the Era of Social Media: Scholarly Engagement Through Participation and Online Interaction. Cjem. 2017:1-6.
  9. Handel MJ. Article-level Metrics-It’s Not Just About Citations. J Exp Biol. 2014; 217(Pt 24):4271-4272.
  10. Cress PE. Using Altmetrics and Social Media to Supplement Impact Factor: Maximizing Your Article’s Academic and Societal Impact. Aesthet Surg J. 2014; 34(7):1123-1126.

Kristina Dzara_100x125Kristina Dzara, Ph.D., M.M.Sc. (@KristinaDzara) is a medical educator and researcher with 5+ years of experience in academic medicine. A recent graduate of the Harvard Medical School Master’s in Medical Education program and a Harvard Macy scholar, Kristina’s areas of professional interest include evaluation and assessment, faculty development, and social media in medical education.

*OPINIONS EXPRESSED BY OUR GUEST AUTHORS ARE VALUABLE TO US AT LEAN FORWARD, BUT DO NOT REPRESENT OFFICIAL POSITIONS OR STATEMENTS FROM HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL.